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What is Gout? How does gout affect the body?

What is Gout?



Gout is a form of arthritis caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the body, causing hyperuricemia (Kaneko, et al, 2014). The uric acid turns into crystals in the joints causing pain and inflammation (AIHW, 2017). Uric acid is the final metabolite from purine metabolism. Purines are found in high concentration in foods such as red meat, shellfish, high sugar foods such as soft drinks, foods high in saturated fat and alcoholic beverages such as beer (Kaneko, et al, 2014).


How does gout affect the body?


Gout causes swollen joints, causing pain from the uric acid crystals which reduces one’s quality of life. There are four stages of gout to be aware for:


Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: This is when blood uric acid levels are high and crystals are forming in the joint but no symptoms are present (Arthritis Foundation, 2018).

Acute gout attack: This occurs when uric acid levels spike or crystals are formed in the joint, causing pain and inflammation. This can be caused by something as casual as night of drinking (Arthritis Foundation, 2018).


Interval gout: is the time between attacks and an important time to start managing gout to prevent future attacks and chronic gout such as change in diet, lifestyle and/or the use of medications or functional supplements (Arthritis Foundation, 2018).


Chronic gout: Is when the levels or uric acid are high for an extended period of time (years), increasing the risk of more, recurrent attacks. The pain does not usually subside and increased inflammation and erosion in the joints may occur, leading to reduced mobility (Arthritis Foundation, 2018).


What are the risk factors?


• Obesity

• A diet high in purines

• Family history of gout

• High cholesterol, high blood pressure or Type II Diabetes

• Medications such as diuretics or immunosuppressants

• Being a male over 60 years of age

(Arthritis Foundation, 2018).


What nutrients and herbs may help with supporting those who experience gout?


Globe artichoke has been traditionally used in Western Herbal Medicine to reduce the symptoms of occasional gout and is a powerful antioxidant as it contains a number of polyphenols which help alleviate oxidative stress in the body (Bone and Mills, 2013; European Medicines Agency, 2011; Braun and Cohen, 2010).


Garlic has the ability to scavenge free radicals which cause metabolic disease by enhancing the function of glutathione; the most powerful antioxidant in the body. It also reduces the action of inflammatory mediators which may cause joint pain (Pizzorno and Murray, 2013; Braun and Cohen, 2010).


Cranberry is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory because of the rich polyphenolic phytonutrients such as resveratrol (Caldas, Coelho, & Bressan, 2017). Elevated uric acid also increases the risk of developing uric kidney stones (Abou-Elela, 2017). Cranberry can reduce the incidence of uric kidney stones by elevating uric PH levels (Harding, 2016). Supplementation has also shown to support urinary tract health and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (Luís, Domingues, & Pereira, 2017; Micali, et al, 2014; Blumberg, et al, 2013).


Celery Seed has been traditionally used in Western Herbal Medicine to reduce the symptoms of occasional gout (Barnes, et al, 2007; Bradley, 1992). It has antioxidative effects and contains Flavonoids, including apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and quercetin which have shown to have anti-inflammatory effects (Braun and Cohen, 2010; Li, et al, 2017)


Did you know that Urinary Gout Support……



Contains herbs used in Western Herbal Medicine to relieve symptoms of occasional episodes of gout

Has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties

Supports urinary tract health

Helps reduce occurrence of medically diagnosed cystitis



Warnings


Always read the label and follow the directions for use.


Directions


Take 1 capsule twice daily with meals, or as directed by your healthcare professional.


References

Abou-Elela A. (2017). Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of uric acid urolithiasis: A narrative review. Journal of advanced research, 8(5), 513-527.

Arthritis Foundation. (2018). What is Gout? Retrieved from https://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/gout/what-is-gout.php

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). (2017). Gout, What is gout? - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-musculoskeletal-conditions/gout/contents/what-is-gout

Barnes, J., Anderson, LA., & Phillipson, JD (2007). Herbal medicines. Pharmaceutical Press. 3rd Ed.

Blumberg, J. B., Camesano, T. A., Cassidy, A., Kris-Etherton, P., Howell, A., Manach, C., Ostertag, L. M., Sies, H., Skulas-Ray, A., … Vita, J. A. (2013). Cranberries and their bioactive constituents in human health. Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 4(6), 618-32. doi:10.3945/an.113.004473

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed., pp. 649-656). London: Elsevier Health Sciences UK.

Bradley PR. (1992). British Herbal Compendium. Volume 1. British Herbal Medicine Association


Braun L & Cohen M. 2010. Herbs & Natural Supplements An Evidence based Guide. Elsevier. (p. 296-297, 466-475, 532-535).

Caldas, A., Coelho, O., & Bressan, J. (2017). Cranberry antioxidant power on oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial damage. International Journal Of Food Properties, 21(1), 582-592. doi: 10.1080/10942912.2017.1409758

European Medicines Agency. (2011). Assessment report on Cynara scolymus L., folium. Retrieved from https://www.ema.europa.eu

/documents/herbal-report/final-assessment-report-cynara-scolymus-l-folium_en.pdf

Harding, M. (2016). An update on gout for primary care providers. The Nurse Practitioner, 41(4), 14-21. doi: 10.1097/01.npr.0000481510.32360.fa Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/tnpj/Fulltext/2016/04000/An_update_on_gout_for_primary_care_providers.3.aspx


Kaneko, K., Aoyagi, Y., Fukuuchi, T., Inazawa, K., & Yamaoka, N. (2014). Total Purine and Purine Base Content of Common Foodstuffs for Facilitating Nutritional Therapy for Gout and Hyperuricemia. Biological And Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 37(5), 709-721. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b13-00967

Li, M., Hou, X., Wang, F., Tan, G., Xu, Z., & Xiong, A. (2017). Advances in the research of celery, an important Apiaceae vegetable crop. Critical Reviews In Biotechnology, 38(2), 172-183. doi: 10.1080/07388551.2017.1312275

Luís, Â., Domingues, F., & Pereira, L. (2017). Can Cranberries Contribute to Reduce the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Clinical Trials. The Journal Of Urology, 198(3), 614-621. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2017.03.078

Micali, S., Isgro, G., Bianchi, G., Miceli, N., Calapai, G., & Navarra, M. (2014). Cranberry and Recurrent Cystitis: More than Marketing?. Critical Reviews In Food Science And Nutrition, 54(8), 1063-1075. doi: 10.1080/10408398.

2011.625574

Pizzorno, J., & Murray, M. (2013). Textbook of natural medicine (4th ed., pp. 569-576). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Saunders.


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